Singular and Plural Nouns – Rules, Definitions, and Examples

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Whether it’s for a quiz or to help you write better, it’s crucial to learn singular and plural nouns so that you focus on English grammar. Most people feel that English is the hardest language to learn, and this could be true.

Sometimes, when you want to make a singular noun plural, it’s hard to do and doesn’t seem to make a lot of sense. Therefore, it’s essential to understand the rules for doing it, and the best way to do that is to use examples. This free guide ensures that you understand what singular/plural is and focus on ways to make singulars into plurals with little notice. Hopefully, this website helps you learn the correct way of writing things so that you don’t always have to rush to the dictionary.

In a sense, English nouns are often inflected and changed for grammatical numbers, so if they are countable, they have different forms when referring to singular and plural. The lesson today talks about the many ways that English plural nouns are generally formed from their singular forms. Plus, you can learn about the issues focused on singular and plural words in English. Join the discussion by learning:

Singular Noun to Plural in English

Throughout the course of this lesson, you learn about the many exceptions. Pay close attention to each rule to better understand the idea behind it. That way, you can write in English, regardless of where you live in the world.

Rule 1

In most cases, a singular noun is made plural when you add an “s’ at the end of the singular form. Most singular nouns use this option. Sometimes, they are called regular nouns, and most nouns fall into this category when moving from singular to plural form. For example:

  • Dog – Dogs
  • House – Houses
  • Table – Tables
  • Bag – Bags
  • Car – Cars
  • Room – Rooms
  • Computer – Computers
  • Bike – Bikes
  • Sister – Sisters
  • Bed – Beds
  • Shirt – Shirts
  • Photo – Photos
  • Pen – Pens
  • Nest – Nests
  • Lamb – Lambs
  • Game – Games
  • Fork – Forks
  • Flower – Flowers
  • Egg – Eggs
  • Doll – Dolls
  • Desk – Desks
  • Camel – Camels
  • Broom – Brooms
  • Bird – Birds
  • Ellipse – Ellipses
  • World – Worlds
  • Word – Words

Rule 2

Singular nouns ending with an “ss,” “sh,” “ch,” “z,” “x,” or “s” must form the plural by adding an “es” at the end. Here are some examples of singular and plural nouns:

  • Watch -Watches
  • Marsh – Marshes
  • Lunch – Lunches
  • Tax – Taxes
  • Blitz – Blitzes
  • Truss – Trusses
  • Dish – Dishes
  • Box – Boxes
  • Bench – Benches
  • Bus – Buses

However, there are exceptions to the rules, such as:

  • Fez – Fezzes
  • Quiz – Quizzes
  • Gas – Gasses
  • Bus – Busses (singular and plural nouns can be written both ways in this example).

Rule 3

The plural form for some nouns ending in “fe” or “f” is made by changing the ending to a “ves.” Therefore, wife becomes wives and so on. Here are some examples:

  • Wife – Wives
  • Scarf – Scarves
  • Knife – Knives
  • Life – Lives
  • Wolf – Wolves
  • Thief – Thieves
  • Loaf – Loaves
  • Leaf – Leaves
  • Shelf – Shelves
  • Elf – Elves
  • Calf – Calves
  • Hoof – Hooves
  • Half – Halves

The exceptions here include:

  • Chief – Chiefs
  • Roof – Roofs
  • Belief – Beliefs
  • Chef – Chefs
  • Knockoff – Knockoffs
  • Cuff – Cuffs

Rule 4

Typically, singular nouns ending with an “o” and preceded by vowels are made plural when you add an “s” at the end. Examples can include:

  • Video – Videos
  • Stereo – Stereos
  • Radio – Radios

However, if you have a singular noun that ends in “o” and is preceded by a consonant, you make them plural by adding the “es” at the end. These include:

  • Domino – Dominoes
  • Veto – Vetoes
  • Echo – Echoes
  • Hero – Heroes
  • Potato – Potatoes
  • Tomato – Tomatoes

However, exceptions for that include:

  • Soprano – Sopranos
  • Halo – Halos
  • Photo – Photos
  • Piano – Pianos

Rule 5

Sometimes, you have nouns ending in a letter “y.” To make them plural nouns, you must change the “y” to an “i,” and then add an “es” to the singular noun when the “y” follows the consonant. Examples might include:

  • Party – Parties
  • Puppy – Puppies
  • Lady – Ladies
  • Cherry -Cherries
  • Family – Families
  • Country – Countries
  • Candy – Candies
  • City – Cities

However, when the letter “y” follows the vowel, you form a plural by retaining the “y” and just adding an “s.” For example:

  • Donkey – Donkeys
  • Key – Keys
  • Toy – Toys
  • Ray – Rays
  • Boy – Boys
  • Holiday – Holidays

Rule 6

Sometimes, you must change the spelling of the noun to make it plural. It almost doesn’t look the same when you do this:

  • Mouse – Mice
  • Goose – Geese
  • Tooth – Teeth
  • Foot – Feet
  • Child – Children
  • Policeman – Policemen
  • Caveman – Cavemen
  • Man – Men
  • Woman – Women
  • Ox – Oxen
  • Person – People

Rule 7

On the other hand, some nouns are the same whether they are plural or singular, such as:

  • One fish – Two fish
  • Sheep – Sheep
  • Means – Means
  • Series – Series
  • Species – Species

Rule 8

To form the plural for a noun of French/Greek/Latin origin can change based on the plural. Examples might include:

  • Appendix – Appendixes/Appendices
  • Chateau – Cheateaus/Chateaux
  • Diagnosis – Diagnoses

Singular and Plural Pronouns

Singular and plural pronouns are a bit different than any other plural noun. Typically, singular pronouns can be a mixture of the other noun rules. Here are a few examples of singular pronouns to plural pronouns:

  • I – We
  • Himself/Itself/Herself – Themselves
  • He/It/She – Them/They
  • Yourself – Yourselves
  • Myself- Ourselves
  • Me – Us
  • You – You
  • That – That

As you can see, some pronouns stay the same for singular/plural needs. Other noun options change completely.

Irregular Nouns

Then, you could have irregular nouns, which is where the noun as plurals changes the look of the word. These include:

  • Child – Children
  • Leaf – Leaves
  • Woman – Women
  • Goose – Geese
  • Person – People


Each person must understand the English language thoroughly to speak and write correctly. The singular/plural rules make you write sentences with grammar in mind. Therefore, the idea is to learn about plurals now so that you focus on your grammar and everyone understands what you mean.

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